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Vinaya – the vows of a Bhikkhu

A Podcast Dhamma talk in discourse  of the Vinaya and its applied methods, and what is the business of a Bhikkhu, and which actions are not fitting or transgressions of the vows a Bhikkhu makes to uphold the Vinaya and adhere to obeying the rules laid out in the Vinaya Pitaka, as well as to know their duties as a representative of the Lord Buddha. The Podcast is composed by Ajarn Spencer Littlewood of Asrom Por Taw Guwen. This talk is the first of a series of talks intended to make clear and understandable what one should recognize as skilful practice, and which Bhikkhus are practicing properly.

Khmer sanskrit tests

Ajahn Khao Khorata's Biography

The Life of Ajarn Khao

Khao Khorata, born on 28 December 1888 in Baan Bo Chaneng in Ubon Ratchathani province in Thailand, was the fourth child in a family of seven children. Khao was a farmer. He worked hard to be wealthy, and was known as a person who was easy in social interaction. His personality was primarily characterised by honesty and generosity towards friends and family.[1]

When he reached the age of twenty, his parents arranged a marriage for him. Khao and his wife – Nang Mee – had seven children. Though he had to work hard in order to provide for his family, yet his income was just enough to provide them with the basic necessities of life. Hence, for the sake of his family’s well being, he decided to go and look for a job in another province. Once he had gathered sufficient funds, he would return back home. However, when that time finally arrived, Khao found his wife sleeping with someone else.[2]

Though Khao had previously already been informed by his friends, who told him about the adulterous behavior of his wife, yet he nearly lost his self control when he heard the news. Hence, armed with a machete, he went out to confront the unlawful couple. His rage and anger took complete control over him, and so he pointed the machete at the sleeping couple. However, coincidentally, his wife’s lover noticed what was going on, and saw Khao standing at a short distance with the machete in his hands. Terrified by what he saw, he immediately raised his hands and begged Khao to spare his life. The man then instantly admitted the grave mistake he had made to sleep with another man’s wife. Due to the man’s sincere confession, Khao suddenly changed his mind. His anger turned into compassion when he saw the anxiety in that man’s eyes. When Khao saw that man’s his fear of death, his anger disappeared, and he regained his sense of reality again.

So, instead of killing the man, Khao called upon all the villagers as a witness to this scandal, and let them testify against the shameless act of the couple, so that in the future no doubt could remain about this matter. In the presence of the entire village community, among them were Khao’s relatives, he publicly accused his the of committing sex with his wife; the man admitted his faults, and agreed to pay a financial compensation to Khao. Khao then publicly announced that he hereby handed his wife over to her lover.[3]

Before all this happened, Khao was merely concerned about how he could achieve his worldly ambitions. But because of the martital unfaithfulness of his wife, Khao was inspired to contemplate the Dhamma. Soon after that he understood that there are many hidden dangers in the life of a householder. And so he realized that his worldly dreams and wishes would only cause him to suffer even more in the future. This insight, of course, upset him so much until it became almost unbearable for him to carry on living this way. After a while he had lost the will to live, for he could not find any motivation to get his worldly life back on track.

Eventually Khao decided to renounce his worldly life in order to put an end to all his suffering. The Dhamma made him realize that there is in fact a way out of this suffering. Thus, Khao put all his trust and faith in the teachings of the Buddha, and went forth as a member of the saṅgha[5] to put the Dhamma in to practice. Through his dilligent practice, he found that the Buddha’s teachings are true in the sense that there is indeed a way to transcend beyond samsara, which leads to final liberation from suffering.

Ajahn Khao Khorata's Biography



[1] Ven. Ācariya Mahā Boowa Nanasampanno: ‘Venerable Ajaan Khao Analayo: a True Spiritual Warrior’, p. 11.

[2] Ven. Ācariya Mahā Boowa Nanasampanno: ‘Venerable Ajaan Khao Analayo: a True Spiritual Warrior’, p. 16.

[3] Ven. Ācariya Mahā Boowa Nanasampanno: ‘Venerable Ajaan Khao Analayo: a True Spiritual Warrior’, p. 17.

[4] Saṅgha: the monastic community of Buddhist monks.

Luang Por Cha Speaks

The Venerable Ajahn Chah Speaks about Suffering

Exerpts of the Dhamma Book “No Ajahn Chah – Reflections” Verses from the Chapter on Suffering

Luang Por Cha Speaks

Two Kinds of Suffering

“There are two kinds of suffering: the suffering which leads to more suffering, and the suffering which leads to the end of suffering. The first is the pain of grasping after fleeting pleasures and aversion for the unpleasant, the continued struggle of most people day after day. The second is the suffering which comes when you allow yourself to feel fully the constant change of experience – pleasure, pain, joy, and anger – without fear or withdrawal. The suffering of our experience leads to inner fearlessness and peace”.

Craving, Addiction, Indecision, Impermanent Pleasures.... Suffering and Relief are Inter-related.

The Easy Way

We want to take the easy way, but if there’s no suffering, there’s no wisdom. To be ripe for wisdom, you must really break down and cry in your practice at least three times.

Vipassana Kammathana Forest Monks

Why become a Monk or Nun?

We don’t become monks or nuns to eat well, sleep and he very comfortable, but to know, suffering:

      How to accept it…
      How to get rid of it..
      How not to cause it…

So don’t do that which causes suffering, like indulging in greed, or it will never leave you.

Ajahn Chah in Forest Meditation

Catch 22 – Clinging to Suffering by Seeking Relief

In truth, happiness is suffering in disguise but in such a subtle form that you don’t see it. If you cling to happiness, it the same as clinging to suffering, but you don’t realize it. When you hold onto happiness, it’s impossible to throw away the inherent suffering. They’re inseparable like that. Thus the Buddha taught us to know suffering, see it as the inherent harm in happiness, to see them as equal. So be careful! When happiness arises, don’t be overjoyed, and don’t get carried away. When suffering comes, don’t despair, don’t lose yourself in it. See that they have the same equal value.

Who is it Who Suffers?

When suffering arises, understand that there is no one to accept it. If you think suffering is yours, happiness is yours, you will not be able to find peace.

Dharmathai Notes

Applying the Teachings;

Clinging to Suffering by Seeking Relief

It is important to contemplate in Meditation, the Impermanent Nature of all things, including non-physical things such as feelings and thoughts, be they pleasurable or unpleasurable. The Contemplation and Attainment of deep insights about Impermanence will cause the Insight into the other two factors of the Dhamma (Existence, namely, Dhukkha (Unsatisfactoriness) and Anatta (Non-Permanent-Self-Nature)
The Problem with our wrong understanding of how things are, causes us to see relief from suffering by seeking escape by absorbing our self in Worldly pleasures. These Pleasures do of course bring some kind of Joy, but they are temporary pleasures which fade, and leave one longing for more, or a repeat of the pleasurable experience. So when we feel bored, or lonely, it is because we miss the excitement of the party, the company of friends, etc. The company of friends and the excitement of the party, are both pleasures which are temporary. The suffering arises from the empty hole left by the absence of the pleasure which has faded (due to its impermanent nature).

This is precisely how tobacco addiction happens. The relief from the smoke makes the suffering seem to disappear. In fact, it hasn’t disappeared at all, it has just been smothered with some pleasure which makes it harder to notices its presence. Once the impermanent rush of pleasure has faded, we may feel fulfilled for a while, but slowly, the inclination (Craving) to repeat the relieving experience returns, and we become pulled along by the Craving. This cycle of fulfillment, craving and seeking fulfillment again, is the process of two of the chains in the Paticcasammupphada (wheel of dependent origination), which are called ‘Danha and Upadhana’ (Craving and Addiction). We become conditioned to this and thus become chained to the cause and effects of suffering, in a never ending wheel.

This is also a large part of what causes our Endless Rebirths in Samsara. To contemplate and attain insights into these causes of suffering within us, and to realize with Insight, that these pleasures are true causes of Suffering, then we shall slowly develop a turning away from such illusory pleasures, and be able to renounce them with Wisdom.

Why become a Monk or Nun?

Becoming a Monk or Nun means to make a Vow before Buddha, which is in Truth a Vow Unto Your Self. Whether you become a Monk or a Nun by Ceremony, is nothing to do with Whether You will Truly practice or Not. The True Applied Practice comes from Inner Effort with oneself, requiring Self Honesty and Diligence. This Road of Self Development can be practiced by Any Person who has arrived at the point of needing to begin this Practice. If you have Seen and Agreed that all thinbgs are Anijja Dhukkha and Anatta (Impermanent, lead to Unsatisfactoriness and have no Inherent Unchanging Self), and you Find the World a simple Trap, and Unescapable Predicament of Suffering, and wish to Attain the Paths and Fruits of the Noble Ones (train to become disattached from all worldly attachments and indulgences), then ordination as a Monk or Nun would be perhaps advisable. But if you have not applied Diligent and Intensive practice as a Layperson and got results, then it is not Advisable to ordain before this has been done. In Truth, the Ordained Sangha is just the ‘Sommutti sangha’ and the True ‘Sangha’ means those who have entered the Paths or Fruits of the Noble Ones (Sotapanna, Sakitakami, Anakami, Arahant). One does not need to ordain to become a Noble One, nor does one need to ordain to Practice or Keep precepts.

If you wish to practice, most Practices except those which are already of a very High Level of Advancement, can ve applied as a Lay person. It was never intended to say that only Monks or Nuns can become Enlightened, rather that the ordained Life is for those who wish to (and are strong enough to) Renounce the World Completely. if you think you will need Family Ties, facebook, Internet and the like,then you are not truly Renouncing. Many Ordained Members of the Sangha do not renmounce anything more than Lay Persons in many ways. Monks these days are seen to use Computers, Internet, Build Schools, Hold Dhamma Courses etc. These are all Auspicious Actions, but they are worldly actions, and still involved in Clinging to the World. This kind of Ordained Person has less chance to Attain Liberation by Practice, for they may spend most of their time occupied with daily tasks and chores that are very much Worldly, such as organizing courses, printing and typing, administrating.. Merits are accumulated slowly, and more merit than a normal person helping the world is attained because of the keeping of the Ordained precepts. The Buddha However, did not say that Sila (Precepts keeping) was a cause of Enlightenment, nor did he say that Samadhi (Concentration) was the direct cause. he named the third quality of Panya (Insight Wisdom and Intelligence) as the true cause of Awakening. The only way to Awaken is to learn to see the Dhamma and Awaken to it, in conjunction with developing the strengths and qualities necessary to have enough effort and will to overcome the obstacles and temptations of the Kilesa (defiled Instincts).

Who is it Who Suffers?

When Insight is Attained into the Non Permanent States which arise within the Mind, it becomes apparent, that although there is a constant seeming awareness (of a Self?, this being what we think is the Self?) present, that awareness is never the same in any two given moments. Because of this constant flux in the condition of the state of awareness, the perceptions we recieve, the moods, feelings and reactions which arise from our contact with the various phenomena, people, events, sensations, cravings and expectations which arise, we become convinced that this conglomeration of things is indeed our true Self.There is no permanently unchangingquality or character that resides within Our Awarenesses, and this is of course what is meant by ‘Non-Self’.

Once we have Intuitively Understood the meaning of Non-Self, we can then begin to accurately conclude in Meditative Contemplation, that there is no Self as Such that is Suffering. Although the Seemingly Unpleasant Effects still arise, if we do not Cling to them as ours, and see their Impermanent Nature, our relationship to them Changes, and we loosen the Fetters a little, making Our Sufferings Lessen, if not Totally Disappear. One can not expect them to completely Disappear until one has wandered the Path for a very long time, and is about to Enter the Path of the Noble Ones. Until then though, we can lessen our Burdens and Prepare the Way for that Future Day of Awakening, by practicing the Contemplation of Impermanence, and Striving to See the Dhukkha and Non-Self Aspects of Nature.

Original collection of Dhamma reflections of Ajahn Chah published for Free Distribution, Compiled and Edited by Dhamma Garden following the wish of Ajahn Chah, that his Dhamma Teachings never be Sold in any Way or Form. The book is for Free Distribution only.

“Offer the Gift of Dhamma to Others as Freely as it has Been Offered to You”

(Our Beloved Teacher and venerable Master – Ajahn Chah

Ajahn Chah in Forest Meditation

Dharmathai Notes written by Ajarn Spencer Littlewood – Use, Sharing and Republication Permitted according to Creative Commons rules (Give Credits to the Author, and/or link to dharmathai.com).

Dhamma Links

MP3 Dhamma Talks by Ajahn Chah

Dhamma Download

No Ajahn Chah – Free PDF Ebook Download for Free Sharing of the Dhamma according to the Wishes of Ajahn Chah.‘No Ajahn Cha’Originally Published in Printed Format by Dhamma Garden Singapore, types and transliterated into PDF by Kritanut Wattana and Ajarn Spencer Littlewood.

Relevant Dhamma Study Links;

Dependent Origination – a Basic Guide (Buddhanet)
Twelve Nidanas in Buddhist Philosophy
Lersi.Net - Thai Hermit Path

The Venerable Ajahn Chah Speaks for the first time again on DharmaThai.Com – Exerpts of the Book “No Ajahn Chah – Reflections” Verses from the Chapter on Peace.

Luang Phu Chah

Once there was a Lay Person who asked Ajahn Chah, Who He Was?

Ajahn Chah, knowing that this Person would not be able to Understand Deep Dhammas, pointed to Himself and replied; “This, This is Ajahn Chah!.

Another Time, Ajahn Chah was asked who He is by another Individual. But this person Ajahn Chah saw to be able to understand the Dhamma well, and so he answered; Ajahn Chah? There is no such thing as Ajahn Chah“.

Emptiness Mantra - Sunyataa Mantra

On Peace

Ajah Chah asks “What is Peacefulness Like?”

Ajahn Chah Answers; “What is Confusion? Well Peacefulness is the End of Confusion”.

Know what is Good and Bad, whether Travelling or Living in One Place. You can not find Peace on a Mountain, or in a Cave. You can even go to where the Buddha Attained Enlightenment, without getting Closer to the Truth.

Original collection of Dhamma reflections of Ajahn Chah published for Free Distribution, Compiled and Edited by Dhamma Garden following the wish of Ajahn Chah, that his Dhamma Teachings never be Sold in any Way or Form. The book is for Free Distribution only.

“Offer the Gift of Dhamma to Others as Freely as it has Been Offered to You”

(Our Beloved Teacher and venerable Master – Ajahn Chah)

Venerable Ajahn ChahLooking Outside the Self, is to Compare and to Discriminate. You will not find Happiness that Way. Nor will You find Peace if You spend Your Time looking for the Perfect Person, or Teacher. The Buddha taught Us to Look at the Dhamma, the Truth, and not to look at other People.

Where is Peace to be Found?

Peace is Within Oneself to be Found in the Same Place as Agitation and Suffering. it is Not Found in a Forest or on a Hilltop. Nor is it Given by a Teacher. Where You Experience Suffering, You can also find Freedom from Suffering. Trying to Run Away from Suffering is Actually, to Run Towards It.

Learning  to let Go

If You let Go a Little, You will have a Little Peace. if You let Go a Lot, You will have a Lot of Peace. If You let Go Completely, You will have Complete Peace.

Nibbana; The Cessation Of SufferingDhamma Links

MP3 Dhamma Talks by Ajahn Chah

Taking Refuge

Taking Refuge in the Triple Gem

The Buddha Dhamma and Sangha are the True refuge of Buddhists

Taking Refuge means, that we Refuge in the Attainments of the Lord Buddha, as a Faith instiller to let us know that a Human can do this (self liberation).
We Refuge in the Dhamma, the teachings which lead to liberation.
And we Refuge in the Sangha

What does ‘Sangha mean?

The Sangha is generally used as a word to refer to the company of Monks and Nuns, but actually, Sangha means the company of true spiritual practitioners who should be sought out as true companions and positive influence on our life.

So we Take Refuge in those that have Attained Liberation, and follow in their footsteps, by Taking Refuge in the study and practice of the Dhamma in the present time, and by Taking Refuge in the right company and Refuging in those who have gone further and attained more self mastery, and can be seen as our guides and teachers, as well as spiritual companions.

The Sangha – Dhamma Diary
What is The Triple Gem?
What is Dhamma?

What is The Triple Gem?

The Triple Gem, or “Pra Ratanatrai” in Thai (Pra refers to “high” or “sacred” things, Ratana means gem,and Trai means triple) is the term used to refer to the three objects of Refuge taken by all Buddhists.

When you become a Buddhist, you will be asked to take refuge in the Triple Gem as part of your Initiation process, and (hopefully), in most cases, will receive a teaching on the meaning of what the triple Gem represents in Buddhism.  This article intends to explain the basic importance of paying reverence to the triple gem, and the reasons why they are seen as so important by Buddhists of all traditions and lineages.

Symbolic Image representing the Triple Gem

symbol of the Triple Gem

The three objects of Refuge are these;

  • The Buddha
  • The Dharma
  • The Sangha

These three objects are seen as the essential core elements which keep the Buddhist faith in existence, and are thus considered to be the source of inspiration in the practise which leads us to Enlightenment and release from further suffering in the Realm of Causal Existence (Becoming and Passing away – all things are impermanent, have a beginning and an End, which leads to dissatisfaction).

For this reason, a Buddhist takes refuge in the Triple Gem until reaching Enlightenment.

This is normally chanted to oneself whilst bowing three times before the image of the Buddha in the Shrine, or even mornings before beginning the day and night times before sleeping at home.

This is normally performed using the Pali language. The chanting goes like this (Thailand phonetic pronunciation);

  • Puttang Saranang Kajchaami (I take Refuge in the Buddha)
  • Tammang Saranang Kajchaami (I take Refuge in the Dhamma)
  • Sangkhang Saranang Kajchaami (I take Refuge in the Sangha)

Then the same again with the word “Tudtiyambi” as a prefix – which means “for the second time”

  • Tudtiyambpi Puttang Saranang Kajchaami 
  • Tudtiyambpi Tammang Saranang Kajchaami
  • Tudtiyambpi Sangkhang Saranang Kajchaami

Then the same again with the word “Dtadtiyambi” as a prefix – which means “for the third time”

  • Dtadtiyambpi Puttang Saranang Kajchaami
  • Dtadtiyambpi Tammang Saranang Kajchaami
  • Dtadtiyambpi Sangkhang Saranang Kajchaami

Alternatively, in other countries, the words are spelled like this;

  • Buddham saranam gacchāmi – I go for refuge in the Buddha.
  • Dhammam saranam gacchāmi – I go for refuge in the Dharma.
  • Sangham saranam gacchāmi – I go for refuge in the Sangha

The reason why all of these three aspects are seen as equally precious, is the fact that;
If there was no Sangha (monks), then the Dhamma would not be able to reach us, for it is the monks who are the living embodiment of the teachings (Dhamma), and it is they who speak the teachings to us and write books for us, and it is they who propagate the practice in the present so that it may still continue in the future.

The Dhamma is the truth of all things in the Universe, always was, is and shall be valid, and is thus the true source which can be uncovered or revealed, enabling our Enlightenment. The Dhamma is the direct cause of our Enlightenment, and is synonymous with the practise.

The Buddha is the being who became Enlightened (knowing the Dhamma in it’s entirety), and is the one who expounded the Dhamma, revealing it to us, so that we could know it and learn to abide by it, using it as a tool to attain Enlightenment with. Without the Buddha, we may never have been lucky enough to encounter the Dhamma, and therefore, the Buddha is seen as the source of the existence of the Dhamma teachings on this planet. Without him, the Dhamma would indeed still be existent, but it would be invisible, unheard of and unknown to Humans, and perhaps the Devas as well.

Important Notes;

The Buddha did not invent the Dhamma, the Dhamma is the true nature of all things in Existence (this is in fact the meaning of the word Dhamma – “nature of things”).
The Buddha even said that the Dhamma existed before he found it, was always true, is now in the present also true, and will still be true in the future, regardless how long a time passes. The Dhamma is the Universal laws that apply to the physical world, and also the non physical world (emotional, mental, spiritual) and these rules and laws apply to life, becoming and all things in existence. They are pure, and unchangeable. The Dhamma teaches that all things are impermanent and changeable, but in fact, the Dhamma that refers to the laws which govern existence itself never changes. The fact that all things are impermanent was true then, is true now, and in the future will still be true – this is an unchangeable truth, and that is what we call a “Dhamma”.

This is of course seemingly self contradictory to say all things are changing, but that this fact is unchangeable.. but this is one of the perplexities of Dhamma when seen from our unenlightened perspective. Once the basic principles of Dhamma have been grasped however, these perplexities disappear and the practitioner ceases to wonder about the self contradictory concepts which occur when attempting to explain the limitless with a limited tool such as Human language.

Reference Links;

Wikipedia – Three Jewels
How to Chant Namo Tassa

Metta - Loving Friendliness

What is Metta?

Metta is normally translated as “Compassion”, or “Loving Kindness”. The great meditation teacher Henepola Gunaratana Maha Thaera gives a perhaps more fitting translation; “Loving Friendliness”. This is perhaps more fitting due to the fact that Compassion is also used to translate the word “Karuna” (otherwise translated as “Generosity”). Loving Friendliness indeed includes both compassionate and amicable thought processes. In Buddhism we will refer to this kind of thought that is orientated around well wishing, friendly, compassionate and concerned (for the wellness of other beings). Metta is not something we all have automatically, and therefore is an aspect of thought which must first be developed. One of the best ways to do this is by practicing meditation to develop Metta.

Metta - Loving Friendliness

Metta meditation

Metta (Loving Kindness/Friendliness) meditation is an extremely important element of Buddhist practice, and a useful tool for reducing worry, and mental stress and suffering. Development of Metta is essential, as successful attainment of the kind and compassionate mind will lend peace, and quietness to the mind and heart, which helps so much when meditating, because when we have Metta we do not have any remorse or regret or guilty feelings blocking our thoughts. This will aid us in being able to concentrate on the object of meditation with a still mind.
One of the Western world’s most proficient teachers in meditation is the Sri Lankan master Bhante G (Henepola Gunaratana), who is the resident Master at Bhavana Society in Virginia U.S.A.
Included in this post is the download for his most clear and easily understandable teaching on how to practise and develop Metta using simple gradual techniques.
Metta is not felt from the beginning, we have to develop it slowly in our hearts; Bhante G explains how to do this in an extremely clear way.


Below Pic – Bhante G meditating with a 4 year old daughter of one of his students in Argentina

The Noble Eightfold Path

The Eightfold Path is the main body of applied practice for Buddhists to attain the perfection of Merits and Moral Behavior, which is considered to be the safe path leading to liberation from suffering, Cessation of Illusory Perception, and Ultimate Enlightenment (Nirvana).

Eightfold Path Visually Explained

The Noble Eightfold Path consists of;

  1. Right view (samma-ditthi),
  2. Right resolve (samma-sankappa),
  3. Right speech (samma-vaca),
  4. Right action (samma-kammanta),
  5. Right livelihood (samma-ajiva),
  6. Right effort (samma-vayama).
  7. Right mindfulness (samma-sati),
  8. Right concentration (samma-samadhi)

The Eightfold Path is well known in all Buddhist traditions and is the basis of the Buddhist practice. This having been said, it is not often clear as to how one should apply oneself to practicing and realizing the eightfold path as a manifest practice, constantly present in one’s daily life. This i feel is due to the fact that the eight classes of treading the path are listed, but rarely explained in the context of what consists of the practicing of each facet of the path.
For example; Right view (samma-ditthi) – it is easy to say that one should practice having the right view, but this suggestion is useless unless it is explained to the disciple what is meant by “right view” – “wrong view” should also be explained, in order for the practitioner to be able to differentiate between the two.

“Right View” (Samma Dhitthi) in the eightfold path, means that one is conscious and convinced of the truth of the concept of the “Four Noble Truths” – (Dhukka, Samutaya, Nirodha and Maggha).

Right effort (samma-vayama), means to practice and maintain the 4 Sammaphadana (leaving behind past negative actions, culturing future auspicious actions, avoiding further negative actions, and maintaining the merits of previous positive actions)
For those who wish to study the complete analysis of what consists of correctly applying the practice of the 8 fold path, i shall be publishing an article on this matter on the Dhamma blog here on the Dharmathai portal. This particular blog section of dharmathai dot com is for beginners Buddhism and therefore should not go into too much further detail on this matter here.

Wheel of Dependent Origination

Interdependent Origination

Interdependent Origination – Paticasammuphada

A Short Musing about the Interdependence of all things.

The Law of Interdependent Origination is another essential aspect of the inner meditative/analytical practise of a Buddhist.

Wheel of Dependent Origination

To give a basic explanation of what this law means, let us consider any thing around us in our environment which we can interact with. Let’s take a bottle of lemonade, for example.
If there was no bottle in existence then the lemonade would not be able to served to you (at least not in a bottle), if you didn’t exist as a customer, the bottle wouldnt be produced at all either! If there were no factories, workers, monetary system, sand on the beach (to make the glass for the bottle), then none of these things would have been able to exist.. the chain of interdependent factors allowing us all to exist in this Universe is endless and interwoven to include every single individual molecule and entity in existence. Everything that is, is inter-related and inter-connected. We could not exist without each other! – repeated long term consideration of this and the other basic concepts of Bhuddhist thought (Dharma), are the keys to liberation from suffering (through cutting the roots to the causes of suffering) and the path to Enlightenment and Nirvana

What is Buddhism?

Buddhism is arguably not a Religion as such; rather a philosophy of life.
What is known in the present Day as Buddhism, started of course about 2550 years ago,with the appearance of a sage known as Siddhattha Gotama, otherwise known as the Buddha Sakyamuni.
Buddha, or Buddho can be roughly translated as “The Awakened one”.
Siddhattha Gotama in Pali (or Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit), was born in Lumbini in Nepal, roughly between the years 400 and 480 BC.
He was the son of a powerful member of his clan and held the approximate status of a prince. He lived in his father’s palace protected and oblivious to the sufferings that were at large in the wide world.
At the age of twenty-nine, he decided to leave the palace, his life of pleasure and comfort, and become an Ascetic, in order to find the solution to end all suffering. He studied under several famous Yogis for many Years until he became tired of the Hindu caste system and the principles of Indian ascetism and left the group, consquently losing all his followers too.
Instead he continued his search for truth through the practise of meditation.
Eventually, he reached the realisation of Enlightenment During a short period of time, Buddha established a reputation in western Hindustan by converting thousands of people to the Dhamma

The Practise of Dhamma is the way of life, and looking at life that is practised by Bhuddhists.
Dhamma/Bhuddhism, is the basically practise of “Mindfulness” (trying to be constantly aware). Mindfulness of ones actions, thoughts and reactions/feelings, along with meditative practise to increase the quality of mindfulness, leads to Insight. Insight removes suffering by recognizing the causes/roots of our sufferings (craving). The basic practise of the Good Bhuddhist is the “Eightfold Path”. The Eightfold Path is considered a perfect and complete system to attain liberation from suffering and it’s causes and reach Nibbana (Enlightenment). The only problem is, that is extremely difficult to maintain awareness/mindfulness of one’s thoughts speech and actions without losing one’s attention with all the outer distractions

Dharma Thai Ramakian section - Thai Buddhism

Buddhism (Dharma) consists of both Inner, and Outer practise. There are three main levels on which must be worked on saimultaneously – the breat/speech, Mind/thought/intention, and, the body/ physical action.
This reflects how we can be affected by or influence the outside world in three ways/worlds.
In Thai we use the words “manoegamm, Wajeegamm and Gaiagam” to classify the three levels of partaking of karmik action (creating causes and effects). Manoe means mind, Wajee means speech, and Gaay/Gaaya means body. Gamm means karma – which we in the west seem to imagine as some kined of Cosmic retribution process to punish our ill deeds and reward our good deeds.
In fact, the word karma, or “Gamm” in Thai, means “Action/reaction” – any kind of action is a kind of gamm/karma the cause of a future result, and also the result of a previous cause. This is the law of cause and effect in motion, and the root of our endless wandering through Eternity as unenlightened beings in Samsaric existence – which is suffering and illusion.